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Motion Control Technology Handbook August 21, 2014

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Published by Manufacturing Automation

Manufacturing AUTOMATION’s ‘Motion Control Technology Handbook’ is a digital magazine that focuses on Automation and Motion Control products and systems.  Posted on MA’s website as an interactive flip-style magazine, the Technology Handbook provides market information, technical product information, tutorial video’s, white papers as well as trends within the Motion Control Industry.

Motion Control Handbook Snippet

This is a must-read for all to OEM machine builders, end users and system integrators.  Click on the link below to view the Handbook.

http://mfgautomation.techhandbook.dgtlpub.com/2013/2013-11-30/home.php

Tags:  Motion Control, Motor Control, Machine Control, Servo Systems, Stepper Systems

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Motion Control’s best kept secret… December 30, 2013

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ADVANCED Motion Control’s best kept secret is out.  ADVANCED Motion Controls is the leader when it comes to customized servo solutions.  To see for yourself they’ve compiled a list of their most notable and compelling custom servo drive solutions into one brochure.  You’ll find multi-axis solutions, drives that perfectly fit into defined spaces, custom connectorization and a lot more.  Download the .pdf at the link below.

http://www.a-m-c.com/download/promotion/customcapabilities.pdf

For more information, please contact:

Editorial Contact:

Warren Osak
sales@servo2go.com
Toll Free Phone:  877-378-0240
Toll Free Fax:   877-378-0249
www.servo2go.com

Tags:  Servo2Go, Advanced Motion Controls, Servo Amplifier, Servo Drive, PWM Amplifier, BLDC Drive, Automation, Motion Control

Digital Brushless Servo Drive…Made Simple August 26, 2013

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When you simply need a servo drive, the ElectroCraft CompletePower EA4709 servo drive keeps your innovation moving.  The EA4709 combines the performance and flexibility you’d expect from a digital drive with the ease-of-use and simple set-up of an analog drive, bridging the gap between performance and simplicity.

ElectroCraft EA4709

ElectroCraft EA4709

This four-quadrant brushless DC servo amplifier is fully enclosed in a rugged aluminum case which can be DIN-rail mounted of panel mounted for easy integration.  The drive can be configured in a variety of torque and speed control modes with the mode of operation being set by simple DIP switches.  Both the 9A and 18A versions of this drive have an adjustable current limit and can be powered by the same 9 – 70 VDC range of supply voltage.  The drive is protected against over-current and over-temperature and motor short-circuit and incorporates state of the art MOSFET technology for maximum efficiency. Connectivity is tool-free with RJ45-CAT5 connectors for control/feedback inputs and push-type terminals for supply power and motor connections.

More information on the ElectroCraft EA4709 from Servo2Go can be found at the link below-

http://www.servo2go.com/product.php?ID=105435&cat=

For more information, please contact:

EDITORIAL CONTACT:
Warren Osak
sales@servo2go.com
Toll Free Phone:  877-378-0240
Toll Free Fax:       877-378-0249
www.servo2go.com

Free Online Motion Control Tutorials from Galil Motion Control June 11, 2013

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On-Line Tutorials

Learn all about motion and I/O control by viewing Galil’s informative on-line tutorials.  Over 30 video’s to choose from.

Choose from a variety of educational topics:

For more information, please contact:

Editorial Contact:

Warren Osak
sales@servo2go.com
Toll Free Phone:  877-378-0240
Toll Free Fax:   877-378-0249
www.servo2go.com

Trapezoidal vs Sinusoidal Brushless Servo Amplifiers May 23, 2013

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Originally posted on June 30th, 2011 by John Hayes at Galil Motion Control

Galil AMP-43540 Sinusoidal Servo Amplifier

Galil AMP-43540 Sinusoidal Servo Amplifier

The new Galil Sine drive amplifiers are a welcome addition to the existing DMC-40×0 and DMC-41×3 line-up of servo and stepper amplifiers – yet the addition of the new amplifiers also brings up a question  – “When should I use a sinusoidal drive instead of a trapezoidal drive?”.  This article will go over the Galil brushless servo drive architecture and highlight what you should know when making an amplifier selection.

Two Loop Architecture

In order to gain a better understanding of servo amplifiers and specifically how the Galil servo amplifiers work, the first thing to do is to understand the Controller/Amplifier architecture.  Unlike most single axis drives on the market, Galil uses a split sample rate.  The first and highest speed sample rate occurs on the amplifier and is used on the current loop.  The D3540 Sinusoidal amplifier runs its current loop at 33 kHz and the D3040 Trapezoidal amplifier runs at 66 kHz (which can be increased to 120 kHz for low inductance applications).  The benefits of a high speed current loop are:

  • Fast response to desired current/velocity command signal
  • Less destabilizing phase shift on the position loop
  • Tighter more accurate control – 16bit resolution
  • High Closed Loop Frequency (3-4 kHz)

The second loop in the system is the position loop.  Because of the limitations of real world mechanics, a position loop generally has a closed loop frequency in the range of 20 to 200 Hz.  The sample rate required to achieve this is only from 1 kHz to 4 kHz.  Note that the DMC-4000 can have a sample rate of up to 16 kHz and can control up to 8 axes allowing all axes to be tightly coupled.  General motion control applications run optimally at a 1 kHz position loop update.  High performance and high resolution applications can be run at higher rates depending on the required performance.

Separate processors for the Amplifier and Controller allow for this two loop Architecture which allows Galil to be extremely responsive and highly accurate and also perform whatever functions are required in a user’s application.

Trapezoidal vs. Sinusoidal Commutation

Trapezoidal commutation is the most cost effective way of controlling a brushless servo motor.  It is perfect for higher speed applications and applications where the motor and mechanics will eliminate the torque ripple that occurs during switching current from one phase to the next.  Hall sensors are required for Trapezoidal commutation.

Sinusoidal commutation is great for lower speed, direct drive or linear motor applications where the torque ripple of the motor phases needs to be minimized.  Since the current to the motor phases are weighted as sine waves, the torque going through the motor is smooth and has minimal ripple.  It also allows the mechanics to be simplified because Hall sensors can be eliminated.

Sinusoidal amplifiers rely on an initialization sequence at power-up to provide the correct commutation.  This can be done in one of 3 ways on the Galil.    The first and most common method is the BX command that uses an algorithm that energizes the phases and determines the brushless angle.  Only a small amount of motion (if any) is shown with this method.  The second method is to use the BC command that requires Hall sensors to be hooked up.  It will move the motor and use the first hall transition as the basis for the commutation.  This method is necessary if there is an external force on the motor such as a gravity load.  The third method uses the BZ command to drive the motor to the zero degree commutation point which can result in a jump to the closest zero phase.

More info on Galil Sinusoidal Amplifiers

The new AMP-43540 drives four brushless motors operating at up to 8 Amps continuous, 15 Amps peak, 20-80 VDC.  The gain settings of the amplifier are user-programmable at 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 Amp/Volt.  The amplifier offers protection for over-voltage, under-voltage, over-current, short-circuit and over temperature. A shunt regulator option is available.  For more information, please see: DMC-40×0 Product Page .

For additional information on the DMC-40×0 Accelera Series and new AMP-43540 option, see

http://www.servo2go.com/product.php?ID=101658&cat=

For more information, please contact:

Editorial Contact:

Warren Osak
sales@servo2go.com
Toll Free Phone:  877-378-0240
Toll Free Fax:   877-378-0249
www.servo2go.com

Sin/Cos Encoders and Sinusoidal Drives help Galil Controllers Achieve Ultra-Precise Motion May 18, 2013

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Introduction

The use of linear motors for precision motion applications has increased as technology has improved.

Galil DMC-31012 Motion Controller

Galil DMC-31012 Motion Controller

A linear motor typically uses a servo drive with sinusoidal commutation to minimize torque ripple and provide quiet smooth motion. It is also becoming more common for linear motor manufacturers to provide position feedback in the form of an analog sin/cos encoder as this method uses the signals from the motor magnets and is more cost-effective.  Galil motion controllers now provide options for sinusoidal drives and interpolation of sin/cos analog feedback for smooth control of ultra-high performance applications.

Galil controllers use an intelligent interpolation algorithm allowing inexpensive sin/cos signals to be used successfully in high-precision applications.   The AF command is used to set the analog feedback resolution at 2n counts/period. Galil drives perform sinusoidal commutation and are easily programmed using a choice of three different commutation methods.  An example showing how to configure Galil controllers and sine drives for use with linear motors with sin/cos encoders is below.

An example of a Galil Controller used with a Copley ServoTube Linear Motor

Galil’s DMC-31012 motion controller with an internal 800W sinusoidal drive and sin/cos feedback interpolation option was used  in an application with a Copley ServoTube linear motor with  sin/cos encoder. The goal was to move a stage and maintain a position accuracy of .04mm.   The stage manufacturer specified a 25.6 mm/sin feedback period for the encoder signals which is equivalent to the motor’s magnetic cycle.

The AF command was used to interpolate the analog feedback at 2n counts/period. N= 10 was used for this application.  AF 10 provided an interpolation of 1024 counts/period.  The system position resolution can be calculated using the equation below:

Resolution = 25.6mm /1024 counts = .025mm/count

.025mm/count resolution is within our target accuracy of .04mm.

It’s important to note that sin/cos feedback sensors are analog and more prone to noise compared to a digital signal. The DMC-31012 allows an AF of 12 but AF 10 was chosen because it met the accuracy specifications while minimizing the affect of noise.

There are three methods to initialize sinusoidal commutation with Galil sinusoidal drives, BI, BZ and BX.  For this application, the BZ command method was selected because it was better for high static friction. The BI command, which uses halls to initially commutate, is ideal in most cases but the Copley motor did not provide Hall sensors.

Another parameter used for commutation was the BM command.  BM is the brushless modulus of the system or the length for which one magnetic cycle completes. For the Copley ServoTube, the motor’s sin/cos period is the same length as the motors magnetic cycle.  For AF 10, the setting for BM is 1024.

Once AF, BZ and BM were configured during initialization, the controller system was tuned for optimum performance using the GalilSuite tuning software.

Galil controllers with the sin/cos feedback option and sinusoidal drives provide a good solution for controlling linear motors with a high degree of accuracy and extremely smooth commutation. Sinusoidal drives and sin/cos feedback options are available on Galil’s DMC40x0 multi-axis controller and the DMC-31012 single-axis controller.

For more detailed information, see application note #5523 “Connecting to a Linear Motor with Sinusoidal Commutation and Sin/Cos Feedback.” http://www.galilmc.com/support/appnotes/miscellaneous/note5523.pdf

For additional information on the DMC-31012 from Galil can be found at-

http://www.servo2go.com/product.php?ID=105334&cat=

For more information, please contact:

Editorial Contact:

Warren Osak
sales@servo2go.com
Toll Free Phone:  877-378-0240
Toll Free Fax:   877-378-0249
www.servo2go.com

Galil DMC-40×0 Accelera Series Now Available with 2 Ethernet Ports May 2, 2013

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Galil has just released the latest model in the DMC-40×0 Accelera Motion Controller Series. There is now a -C022 option that provides two Ethernet ports for easy-daisy chaining of multiple controllers. The -C022 option is available for 1- through 8-axis versions of the DMC-40×0 motion controller. For example, DMC-4060-C022 specifies a 6-axis model with dual Ethernet ports.

Galil DMC-4000 Motion Controller

The DMC-40×0 is part of Galil’s latest generation Accelera series. Based on a powerful RISC processor Accelera controllers provide ultra high-speed with 40 microsecond command processing,  up to 32kHz servo update rates, and acceptance of encoder inputs up to 22MHz. Other features include optically isolated inputs and outputs, high power outputs for driving brakes and relays, uncommitted analog inputs, dual encoder inputs for each axis, and plenty of program memory for storing application programs.

The DMC-40×0 provides precise control of a variety of motors including brush servos, brushless servos, steppers and piezo ceramic motors. It can be easily connected to external drives of any size or to internal multi-axis drives contained within the DMC-40×0 controller.  The DMC-40×0 controllers with internal drives reduce space, cost and wiring. Table 1 shows the  multi-axis drive options available for the DMC-40×0 series.

Internal multi-axis drive options

As a combined controller and drive unit, the DMC-40×0 is compact and measures 8.1” x 7.25” x 1.72” for the 4-axis model and 11.5” x 7.25” x 1.72” for the 8-axis model. The unit accepts power from a single DC supply between 20-80VDC.

For additional information on the DMC-40×0 Accelera Series and new -C022 dual Ethernet port option, see

http://www.servo2go.com/product.php?ID=101658&cat=

For more information, please contact:

Editorial Contact:

Warren Osak
sales@servo2go.com
Toll Free Phone:  877-378-0240
Toll Free Fax:   877-378-0249
www.servo2go.com

The 10 Most Common Mistakes Made When Purchasing Automation March 12, 2013

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Motion Control Products

Motion Control Products

Buying a piece of automation can be a very long and difficult process.  Here is a list of the 10 most common mistakes made when purchasing automation equipment.

This list was composed by a number of individuals who have both purchased and sold automation equipment.   Click on the link below to download this free White Paper.

http://www.servo2go.com/support/files/The%2010%20Most%20Common%20Mistakes%20Made%20When%20Purchasing%20Automation.pdf

Editorial Contact:

Warren Osak
sales@servo2go.com
Toll Free Phone: 877-378-0240
Toll Free Fax: 877-378-0249
www.servo2go.com

 

Join the New LinkedIn Group ‘Motion Control Fundamentals’ March 4, 2013

Posted by Servo2Go.com in News & Events, Product Video's, Technical Support Information.
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Motion Control Fundamentals LinkedIn Group

Motion Control Fundamentals LinkedIn Group

Created by Electromate.com, this Technical Group strives to advance the knowledge of the fundamentals of Electro-mechanical Motion Control.  We welcome regular posts by group members of any Technical Notes & White Papers, Video’s, Webinars, Podcasts, Engineering Formulae, Sizing Software, etc., related to the discipline of Motion Control.  We appreciate your participation and encourage your comments.

If you are novice or technically proficient user of Motion Control products/systems, please join this group.  No Job Postings please.

Click on the link below to join now.

 

http://www.linkedin.com/groups/Motion-Control-Fundamentals-4883684/about

Tags: Motion Control, Motor Control, Machine Control, Mechatronics, High-Tech Systems, Robotics, Automation, Servo Systems, Stepper Systems, Linear Motion, Rotary Motion

Understanding Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) February 21, 2013

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Servo amplifiers are used extensively in motion control systems where precise control of position and/or velocity is required.  The amplifier basically translates the low-energy reference signals from the controller into high-energy signals (motor voltage and current).  These reference signals can be either of an analog or digital nature.  An analog +/-10 VDC signal is still the most common.  This signal can represent either a motor torque or velocity demand.

Although there exist many ways to “amplify” electrical signals, pulse width modulation (or PWM) is by far the most efficient and cost-effective approach.  At the basis of a PWM amplifier is a current control circuit that controls the output current by varying the duty cycle of the output power stage (fixed frequency, variable duty cycle).   A typical setup is shown below in Figure 2.3  (here for a single phase load):

PWM Current Control Circuit

PWM Current Control Circuit

S1, S2, S3 and S4 are power devices (MOSFET or IGBT) that can be switched on or off. D1, D2, D3, and D4 are diodes, which guarantee current continuity.  The bus voltage is depicted by +HV.  The resistor Rc is used to measure the actual output current.  For electric motors, the load is typically inductive (due to the windings used to generate electromagnetic fields).  The current can be regulated in both directions (+ and -) by activating the appropriate switches.  When switch S1 and S4 (or S2 and S3) are activated, current will flow in the positive (or negative) direction and increase.  When switch S1 is off and switch S4 is on, (or S2 off and S3 on) current will flow in the positive (or negative) direction and decrease (via one of the diodes).  The switch “ON”-time is determined by the difference between the current demand and the actual current.  The current control circuit will compare both signals every time interval (typically 50m sec or less) and activate the switches accordingly (this is done by the switching logic circuit, which also performs basic protection functions).  The picture below shows the relationship between the pulse width (ON-time) and the current pattern.  Note that the current rise time depends on the bus voltage (+HV) and the load inductance.  Therefore, certain minimum load inductance requirements are necessary depending on the bus voltage.

Output current and duty cycle relationship

Output current and duty cycle relationship

Make sure minimum inductance requirements are met!  Pulse Width modulation (PWM) servo drives deliver a pulsed output that requires a minimum amount of load inductance to ensure that the DC motor current is properly filtered.  The minimum inductance values for different drive types are shown in the individual data sheet specifications.  If the drive is operated below its maximum rated voltage, the minimum load inductance requirement may be reduced. Most servo-motors have enough winding inductance.  Some types of motors (e.g. “basket-wound”, “pancake”, etc.) do not have a conventional iron core rotor, so the winding inductance is usually less than 50 μH.  If the motor inductance value is less than the minimum required for the selected drive, use an external filter card.

More information on PWM Servo Amplifiers from Servo2Go can be found at the link below-

http://www.servo2go.com/category.php?cat=10020&sub=10002

For more information, please contact:

Editorial Contact:

Warren Osak
sales@servo2go.com
Toll Free Phone:  877-378-0240
Toll Free Fax:   877-378-0249
www.servo2go.com